A pyrometallurgical process in which the charge and other materials are melted in a high-temperature furnace, the chemical changes of the material occur, metal or metal enrichment is made, and the gangue and impurities contained in the charge are turned into slag and separated out.
It is the abbreviation of smelting, also known as smelting.
Metal or metal concentrate and slag exist in a molten state, they have low mutual solubility, and have a suitable density difference, so they are divided into two layers and can be separated from each other.
The metal obtained from smelting is generally crude metal, which is a multi-component alloy melt that needs to be further refined to obtain final metal products suitable for various applications.
The metal enrichment is matte or yellow slag, which is an intermediate product.
In order to obtain the final main metal, further converter blowing or other treatment methods must be adopted.
Usually, slag contains very little main metal, which can be used in other fields such as cement and building materials. Reprocessing is required to recover the valuable elements.
In addition to loading concentrate, calcine, sinter, etc. into the smelting furnace, metallurgical flux needs to be added to make the charge easy to melt. In order to carry out a certain reaction, a reducing agent needs to be added.
In order to provide the necessary temperature, it is necessary to add fuel to burn and feed air, etc.
According to the equipment used smelting can be divided into blast furnace smelting, reverberatory furnace smelting, and electric furnace smelting.
According to the process characteristics, it can be divided into flash smelting, molten pool smelting, vortex smelting, oxygen-enriched smelting, hot air smelting, and matte smelting, etc.
According to the essence of the process reaction, it is divided into oxidation smelting, reduction smelting, volatilization smelting, and so on.