Submerged arc process: Not essentially an arc process, as heating also occurs through direct resistance.
Some limited heating may be produced by the arc and sparks during the interruption of the current path.
The primary use of the submerged arc process is to reduce high melting point, high heat absorbing iron alloys such as ferromanganese, nickel, chromium, silicon, tungsten and molybdenum which are subsequently remelted in an electric arc furnace to produce special alloys.
Molten oxides can also be produced by the submerged arc route.
Characteristics of Submerged Arc Process
The design of the ore-heating furnace then depends on its application.
In principle, it is a disc-shaped vessel with a brick lining, just like an electric arc furnace.
But the similarity lies in the fact that the disc and the furnace lid are fixed axially, although the lid and the electrodes may rotate.
The furnace is charged through an orifice in the furnace roof, and molten metal and slag continuously flow out of the furnace.
The electrodes are of the Soderberg type and are formed in situ by pouring a mixture of bitumen, tar and anthracite into a steel tube shell.
The process takes place a few meters above the furnace and as the electrode is lowered it bakes, thus eliminating volatile binding.
When it enters the furnace, it is a solid.
With this method it is possible to produce electrodes capable of carrying very high currents of up to 120 KA.
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