A submerged electric arc furnace is a smelting furnace that uses the arc heat at the end of the electrode and the resistance heat of the charge or slag to reduce useful metal elements from ores or oxides using coke or other carbonaceous reducing agents.
Submerged electric arc furnace is also known as an electric arc furnace or electric resistance furnace. It is mainly used for reducing smelting ores, carbonaceous reducing agents and solvents, and other raw materials. It mainly produces ferrosilicon, ferromanganese, ferrochromium, ferrotungsten, silicon-manganese alloy, and other ferroalloys, which are important industrial raw materials in the metallurgical industry and chemical raw materials such as calcium carbide.
The Submerged Electric Arc Furnace is a power-hungry industrial electric furnace. Mainly consists of a furnace shell, furnace cover, furnace lining, short net, water cooling system, smoke exhaust system, dust removal system, electrode shell, electrode pressing, and lifting system, loading and unloading system, controller, burn-through device, hydraulic system, submerged arc furnace transformers, and various electrical equipment.
The main equipment of a submerged electric arc furnace is mainly used for the reduction and smelting of metal oxide ore, so it is also called a submerged reduction electric furnace. In addition, since most of the arcs of submerged arc furnaces are deeply buried in the charge, they are also called submerged arc furnaces. In addition to the production of ferroalloys, submerged arc furnaces are also widely used in the production of calcium carbide, yellow phosphorus, corundum, and other products.
Submerged Electric Arc Furnace Classification
According to the classification of power sources, submerged arc furnaces can be divided into AC electric furnaces, DC electric furnaces, and low-frequency electric furnaces.
The AC electric furnace can be divided into single-phase single-electrode electric furnaces and three-phase three-electrode electric furnaces according to the number of electrode phases; DC electric furnace can be divided into single-electrode, double-electrode, and three-electrode electric furnace according to the number of electrodes.
According to the mechanical equipment structure of submerged arc furnaces, there are three types: closed electric furnaces, open electric furnaces, and semi-closed electric furnaces with short hoods. The furnace structure is divided into two types: fixed type and rotary type.
The open-type electric furnace has been eliminated due to poor working conditions and environmental pollution.
The closed electric furnace can recover the electric furnace gas, but the structure of the furnace is complex, and difficult to maintain, and the construction cost is high. Some varieties cannot be produced by the closed electric furnace.
The smelting process requires the production of ferroalloy products (ferrosilicon, metal silicon, etc.) that require surface operations, usually using a semi-closed electric furnace with a low hood.
In addition, there are rectangular electric furnaces, circular electric furnaces, furnace bottom rotary electric furnaces, split rotary electric furnaces, etc.